Recent Publications and Speeches


Phosphorus, Scarcity of Natural Resources, and the Law

During the last years, the Research Unit Sustainability and Climate Policy has done a lot of research on questions of phosphorus and scarcity of natural resources, as well as on land-use and climate change - from a transdisciplinary point of view. See, among other papers, Economic Instruments for P, N, Climate, Biodiv.

Felix Ekardt on various international conferences

Since 2007, Felix Ekardt has given speeches and presentations on some 60 international conferences on questions of sustainability, climate change, justice, human rights, phosphorus scarcity, land-use, etc. For details and also for forthcoming speeches, see the list of presentations.

Universalism and Discourse Ethics

The Research Unit Sustainability and Climate Policy has done a lot of research on the normative grounds of sustainability - respectively on the theoretical basis of both ethics and law. The most informative is the big German volume "Theorie der Nachhaltigkeit", but there is also a number of English papers. See, among other papers, here.

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The Term ‘Rechtsreferendar’

The term ‘Rechtsreferendar’ is difficult to translate and warrants some explanation. According to the Deutsches Richter Gesetz (German Judge Act), two state examinations are required to obtain the qualification for a judge post. The same qualification is required to become lawyer or prosecuting attorney. Moreover, this qualification is often required by ministries and other government agencies.

The first examination concludes the studies at university.

The second one finishes the Referendariat. This is a two-year period during which the Referendar – i. e. the upcoming judge, lawyer, etc. – works as an assistant at a civil court (approx. 5 months); a criminal court or at a prosecuting attorney (approx. 4 months); at an administrative court or some official authority, e. g. a ministry (approx. 3 months); at a lawyers office (approx. 9 months); and finally at an institution of one's choice (approx. 3 months). The second state examination consists of approx. 8 written examinations and an oral examination.

The idea behind splitting the legal education is that young lawyers should first learn substantial law only (as far as that is possible). The details of procedural law are then learned in a second step.